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Cooling Towers

Cooling Tower

Water is used commonly as a coolant in industry. However most sources of water contain Micro-organisms and if the conditions for growth are suitable, biological contamination (Bio - fouling) of surfaces in contact with the water is inevitable.


Ozone has been long known to be of a tremendous benefit for cooling tower water. It is an effective anti-microbial agent and an efficient method for removing fungi. Legionella, etc. Pneumophila is also controlled with ozone oxidation in cooling tower waters, which is a very virulent microbe resistant to chlorine.


Bio - fouling in cooling water systems results in the restriction of fluid flow, piping corrosion and reduction in heat transfer.


Ozone can be a great asset in reducing cooling tower costs and saving energy. It was shown to attack and remove existing scale deposits. It often inhibits rusting by forming a protective layer on oxydisable surfaces. Since no adulterating chemicals are used, the blow down if any and tower drift are ecologically acceptable. The water circulating in the tower basin is always crystal clear without objectionable odors




Ozone, and no other agent, has the ability to control wood rot after fungi infect the wood. Ozone will protect wood from becoming infected with fungi where the wood is in contact with ozone containing water. Yet it will not affect the wood! Like hydrogen peroxide will foam on your wound but not affect your healthy skin. Ozone will attack sick / cancers cells but not affect healthy ones.


Advanced Oxydation processes:

In many cases, the use of chemical reagents can be minimized or eliminated by proper application of advanced oxidation, the latest and best oxidation processes. Ozone works in synergy with ultraviolet rays (UV) and Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2).




  • Will not load any substance in water unlike chlorine which builds up the TDS till the cooling power is lost.
  • Virtually eliminates the necessity for the blow down.
  • Saves you from the ‘who-pollutes-pay tax’ which is becoming standard world wide (people are made to pay according to the load they dump even in the permitted drains)
  • Makes the water crystal clear, eliminating all turbidity.
  • Removes all bacteriae, including the dreaded Legionella / Pneumophilia.
  • Costs much less, once installed. Just a little power…
  • Dissolves the scale and inhibits further scaling, hence improving heat transfer and further saving on chemicals and reducing pollution.
  • Decreases the corrosion by 50% (acts by passivation like chromates which are used as corrosion inhibitors, but are dangerous)
  • Removes froth and does not generate further froth.
  • Brings the TVC down to below 1000CFU/ml compared to 105 to 107 for chlorine.
  • Frees you from the suppliers of chemicals and maintenance personal as well.
  • Eliminates shaddy deals resulting from the regular purchase of chlorine.
  • Increase dramatically heat transfer efficiency.
  • Improves the COC (Cycle of Concentration).
  • Repays for its capital cost in 6 to 18 months.
  • After this, it adds good money to the bottom lines.

The three major problems in cooling towers analyzed in details.


Scale Formation: 

A major cause of scaling can be related to the organic and biological content of the water in the cooling tower system.


Mineral scale refers to hard inorganic deposits formed on metal surfaces and in the cooling tower as the result of precipitation of inorganic salts from solution. Calcium carbonate is by far the most common mineral scale in cooling water systems followed by calcium phosphate. Other mineral scales that sometimes appear includes calcium sulphate, silica and magnesium silicate, magnesium hydroxide and others.


If good control of these substances could be maintained, the system would be free of scale deposition.



It is the case with ozone. Ozone in most cases inhibits the formation of scale and the existing layers also slowly melt down. Over the course of the past decade, the use of ozone as the single agent for treating recirculating cooling tower water has gained many proponents. There are currently several hundred thousands such systems operating throughout the world. The successful applications have been characterized by scale free achievements of high cycles of concentration (zero blow down in some cases).



Corrosion is the main maintenance concern with the chemically treated cooling towers. Much of the corrosion in cooling towers is associated with bacteriae that create conditions favoring microbiologically induced corrosion. When adequate quantities of ozone are injected, control of the microbial population is accomplished. Moreover ozone acts as a ‘rust inhibitor’ by passivating metallic surfaces. Ozone has a place today in cooling tower systems protection and deserves a greater consideration. It will be widely used when a better understanding of its mechanisms of action is developed or many success stories are circulating in the field.


Latest News:

In many cases, the use of chemical reagents can be minimized or eliminated by proper application of advanced oxidation, the latest and best oxidation processes. Ozone works in synergy with ultraviolet rays (UV) and Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2).



Bio-fouling in cooling water systems results in the restriction of fluid flow, corrosion and reduction in heat transfer efficiency. Microbial Bio-fouling can be extremely expensive contamination in both fresh and salt water systems. Adhesion of micro-organisms and their products to submerged solid surfaces results in the corrosion of cooling tower, heat exchangers and ship hulls.


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